Molecular manufacturing might seem incredible, maybe because the eventual consequences seem too overwhelming, but nanotechnology experts point out that there currently exists no published technical critique of Drexler’s arguments. New technologies, from simple improvements in irrigation and management, to better mining techniques and more efficient power generation machinery, to genetically engineered crops, can continue to improve world resource and food output, while at the same time reducing environmental impact and animal suffering. Advantages of being an upload would include: Uploads would not be subject to biological senescence. A transhumanist is simply someone who advocates transhumanism (see “What is transhumanism?”). It would be wrong to unnecessarily let existing people die in order to replace them with some new “better” people. Genetic therapies are of two sorts: somatic and germ-line. An unstable arms race between nanotechnic states could also result in our eventual demise (Gubrud 2000). No matter how much you speed up your dog’s brain, you’re not going to get the equivalent of a human intellect. Live healthily and avoid unnecessary risks (diet, exercise, etc. But if we’re doing new things, learning, growing more intelligent, and we still aren’t happy, for no better reason than that our cognitive architecture is badly designed, then perhaps it is time to redesign it. What about the hypothetical case in which someone intends to create, or turn themselves into, a being of so radically enhanced capacities that a single one or a small group of such individuals would be capable of taking over the planet? Virtual environments can also be wholly artificial, like cartoons, and have no particular counterpart in physical reality. The goal of creating a new and better world through a centrally imposed vision became taboo and passé; and the horrors of the Stalinist Soviet Union again underscored the dangers of such an approach. en 1950. The goal is more healthy, happy, productive years. Other approaches, such as analyzing pieces of the brain slice by slice in an electron microscope with automatic image processing have also been proposed. Recentment s’ha celebrat la reunió del Consell pel Futur d’Europa a Madrid. Nonetheless, the following seems to constitute a common core of agreement: According to transhumanists, the human condition has been improved if the conditions of individual humans have been improved. The would-be creator of a new life form with such surpassing capabilities would have an obligation to ensure that the proposed being is free from psychopathic tendencies and, more generally, that it has humane inclinations. Dans le monde du numérique, les règles semblent appartenir au passé, mais rien n'est moins vrai ! Posthuman minds might be able to share memories and experiences directly, greatly increasing the efficiency, quality, and modes in which posthumans could communicate with each other. Early applications included training modules for pilots and military personnel. Even vastly improved technology can only postpone this inevitability for a relatively brief time. Join others to help promote transhumanism. By no means are all transhumanists signed up for cryonics, but a significant fraction finds that, for them, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the expense. Population, on the other hand, can easily grow exponentially (~ et). That people really strove to live longer and richer lives can also be seen in the development of systems of magic and alchemy; lacking scientific means of producing an elixir of life, one resorted to magical means. In this respect, the situation is the same as in earlier epochs that had no transhuman possibilities: by becoming involved in political struggles against today’s social ills and injustices, we can help make tomorrow’s society better. Watching TV is typically a passive experience. Only in extreme and unusual cases might state infringement of procreative liberty be justified. Transhumanism as a source of inspiration in artistic creation and cultural activities, including efforts to communicate transhumanist ideas and values to a wider audience (see also “What kind of transhumanist art is there?”. In this approach, the super­intelligence would not be completely specified by the programmers but would instead have to grow by learning from experience the same way a human infant does. It offers a sense of direction and purpose and suggests a vision that humans can achieve something greater than our present condition. Even one extra person can still make a significant difference here. Uploads could reproduce extremely quickly (simply by making copies of themselves). However, FM’s diagnostics are of dubious validity. The changes required to make us posthuman are too profound to be achievable by merely altering some aspect of psychological theory or the way we think about ourselves. Take a look around. Why not execute anyone reaching the age of 75? Democratic transhumanism. Engineering such microbes might soon become possible for increasing numbers of people. Renaissance humanism also created the ideal of the well-rounded personality, one that is highly developed scientifically, morally, culturally, and spiritually. We can also act to strengthen those institutions that prevent violence and protect human rights, for instance by building stable democratic traditions and constitutions and by expanding the rule of law to the international plane. A sufficiently long-lived human who didn’t make any errors and had a sufficient stack of scrap paper at hand could in principle compute any Turing computable function. Healthspan-extension and cryonics are therefore high on the transhumanist list of priorities. 6 juil. For example, a super­intelligence should be built with a clear goal structure that has friendliness to humans as its top goal. To build something, all you will need is a detailed design of the object you want to make and a sequence of instructions for its construction. Achieving an acceptable balance between the rights of such communities for autonomy, on the one hand, and the security concerns of outside entities and the just demands for protection of vulnerable and oppressed individuals inside these communities on the other hand, is a delicate task and a familiar challenge in political philosophy. Local groups are mushrooming in all parts of the world. A change in average life span would not have a big effect. A post-singularity society might be so alien that we can know nothing about it. And you might have thought to yourself, “It ought to be like this always. Furthermore, the reduction of existential risk is a global public good (everybody by necessity benefits from such safety measures, whether or not they contribute to their development), creating a potential free-rider problem, i.e. The concept of the singularity is often associated with Vernor Vinge, who regards it as one of the more probable scenarios for the future. Some human attributes, such as empathy and a sense of fairness, are positive; others, such as tendencies toward tribalism or groupishness, have left deep scars on human history. We can then implement the same algorithms on a computer. The outcome of this might be a super­intelligence that is a radically upgraded version of one particular human mind. Efforts to reduce existential risks are therefore a top priority. Uploads (see “What is uploading?”), who could interact with simulated environments directly without the need of a mechanical interface, might spend most of their time in virtual realities. It is sometimes useful to talk about possible future beings whose basic capacities so radically exceed those of present humans as to be no longer unambiguously human by our current standards. Several people contributed to the definition of transhumanism, which was originated by Max More. Siamo rimasti stupiti, sedotti, impressionati ... Questo viaggio mi ha fatto sognare a lungo.". Isn’t the probability of success too small?”); personal manufacturing and recycling appliances; and automated production systems that can double capital stock in a few hours or less. Remplacez internationales par mondiales et vous êtes dans le N.O.M. Weak super­intelligence is what you would get if you could run a human intellect at an accelerated clock speed, such as by uploading it to a fast computer (see “What is uploading?”). The only long-term method of assuring continued growth of average income is some form of population control, whether spontaneous or imposed, limiting the number of new persons created per year. Francis Fukuyama, né le, à Chicago, est un philosophe, économiste et chercheur en sciences politiques américain. Biotechnology can be seen as a special case of the more general capabilities that nanotechnology will eventually provide (see “What is molecular nanotechnology?”). A distinction is sometimes made between destructive uploading, in which the original brain is destroyed in the process, and non-destructive uploading, in which the original brain is preserved intact alongside the uploaded copy. And uploads wouldn’t have to be confined to virtual reality: they could interact with people on the outside and even rent robot bodies in order to work in or explore physical reality. Most people today are thus living highly unnaturally long lives. A more promising alternative than a blanket ban is differential technological development, in which we would seek to influence the sequence in which technologies developed. A brain scan of sufficient resolution could be produced by disassembling the brain atom for atom by means of nanotechnology. The World Transhumanist Association was founded in 1998 by Nick Bostrom and David Pearce to act as a coordinating international nonprofit organization for all transhumanist-related groups and interests, across the political spectrum. This is a confusion or corruption of the original meaning of the term. Your saved life would then likely be extremely long and healthy, given how advanced the state of medicine must be to revive you. When human nature changes, new ways of organizing a society may become feasible. SPEDIZIONE GRATUITA su ordini idonei (According to Church’s thesis, the class of Turing computable functions is identical to the class of physically computable functions.). When discussing the morality of genetic enhancements, it is useful to be aware of the distinction between enhancements that are intrinsically beneficial to the child or society on the one hand, and, on the other, enhancements that provide a merely positional advantage to the child. When transhumanists say they want to extend lifespans, what they mean is that they want to extend healthspans. DNA could also serve as a “tag” on other molecules, causing them to bind only to designated compounds displaying a complementary tag, thus providing a degree of control over what molecular complexes will form in a solution. (Embryo screening, in which embryos are tested for genetic defects or other traits and then selectively implanted, can also count as a kind of germ-line intervention.) This might result in a super­intelligence that bears no close resemblance to a human brain. What are they and what are they good for? If it works, it may save your life. they benefit a person by making her more competitive (e.g. Isn’t the probability of success too small?”), or chewing nicotine gum for its nootropic effects. You can join Humanity+. Stem cells are undifferentiated (unspecialized) cells that can renew themselves and give rise to one or more specialized cell types with specific functions in the body. The WTA began publishing the Journal of Evolution and Technology, the first scholarly peer-reviewed journal for transhumanist studies in 1999 (which is also the year when the first version of this FAQ was published). In particular, it does not imply that there are no humans anymore.). The Human Genome Project has been completed, and the study of the functional roles of our genes (functional genomics) is proceeding rapidly. If the upload’s clock-rate were a thousand times that of a biological brain, it would perceive reality as being slowed down by a factor of a thousand. It peaked in 1970 at 2.1%. From a transhumanist point of view, humans and our artifacts and enterprises are part of the extended biosphere. The ideal social organization may be one that includes the possibility for those who so wish to form independent societies voluntarily secluded from the rest of the world, in order to pursue traditional ways of life or to experiment with new forms of communal living. More wrote the first definition of transhumanism in its modern sense, and created his own distinctive brand of transhumanism, which emphasized individualism, dynamic optimism, and the market mechanism in addition to technology. Nuclear war. And in the myth of Daedalus, the gods are repeatedly challenged, quite successfully, by a clever engineer and artist, who uses non-magical means to extend human capabilities. a lack of sufficient selfish incentives for people to make sacrifices to reduce an existential risk. Before transhumanism, the only hope of evading death was through reincarnation or otherworldly resurrection. Trying to ban technological innovation on these grounds, however, would be misguided. Many others have over the years offered questions or reflections that have in some way helped shape this document, and even though it is not possible to name you all, your contributions are warmly appreciated. We might not be perfect, but we can make things better by promoting rational thinking, freedom, tolerance, democracy, and concern for our fellow human beings. Awareness of transhumanist ideas is spreading. If you got rid of the pain and stress associated with, say, filling out annual tax returns, people would probably not sit around afterward saying: “Life feels meaningless now that I no longer have income tax forms to fill out.”. Society needs to prepare for the assembler breakthrough and do advance planning to minimize the risks associated with it (see e.g. Watching football on TV doesn’t really compare to being in the stadium. Found any errors, or something else that should be changed? Par William S. Lind − Le 10 Novembre 2020 − Source Traditionnal Right S’il semble que les exigences d’“égalité” soient au cœur de la plupart des problèmes auxquels notre pays est confronté, eh bien, c’est le cas. Needless to say, we should also promote non-technological developments that are beneficial in almost all scenarios, such as peace and international cooperation. Notice the word “informed”. In a later work, Man into Superman (1972), he discussed a number of conceivable improvements to the human being, continuing the tradition started by Haldane and Bernal. Today’s nuclear arsenals are probably not sufficient to cause the extinction of all humans, but future arms races could result in even larger build-ups. 2018 - Découvrez le tableau "Art & digital" de Emilie V. sur Pinterest. The intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally improving the human condition through applied reason, especially by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. The range of expertise needed to address this question extends far beyond the community of AI researchers. Posthumans may have experiences and concerns that we cannot fathom, thoughts that cannot fit into the three-pound lumps of neural tissue that we use for thinking. Pour résumer la FAQ transhumaniste d'Humanity+ développée dans les années 1990, un des documents transhumanistes les plus reconnus[Par qui ? However, unpredictability is logically distinct from abruptness of development and would need to be argued for separately. Salon transhumanism. Another concern that becomes paramount is the need to build a world order in which dangerous arms races can be prevented and in which the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction can be suppressed or at least delayed until effective defenses have been developed (see “Aren’t these future technologies very risky? There are several promising routes. Amorosart es un portal de estampas y litografías originales destinado a las galerías de arte. For instance, her recent visual and conceptual work, Primo Posthuman (3M+), presents a kind of sleek future shopping catalog entry for an entire body design with features such as memory enhancements, sonar sensors, solar protected skin with hue-texture changeability, gender reconfigurability, environmentally-friendly waste disposal, and which comes complete with warranty and upgradability. This could create a window of global vulnerability between the potential creation of dangerous replicators and the development of an effective immune system. ], le transhumanisme est défini par Max More comme suit3 : Anders Sandberg (en), universitaire et éminent[non neutre] transhumaniste, a recueilli d'autres définitions similaires35. A strong prima facie case therefore exists for pursuing these technologies as vigorously as possible. Ordinary life is sometimes boring. We have the power to dream of a better ways for things to be and to deliberately set out to build our dreams, but we also have the responsibility to use this power in ways that are sustainable and that protect essential values. Maybe these will become hotly debated political issues later in this century. One could say that manipulating nature is an important part of what civilization and human intelligence is all about; we have been doing it since the invention of the wheel. Several organizations are working to preparing the world for nanotechnology, the oldest and largest being the Foresight Institute. Ribosomes are the tiny construction machines (a few thousand cubic nanometers big) in our cells that manufacture all the proteins used in all living things on Earth. Humanity+ has been growing since its inception and especially rapidly in the last couple of years, but the task before us is both momentous and mountainous. It would have one or more submicroscopic robotic arms under computer control. Are transhumanist technologies environmentally sound? The quest for immortality is one of the most ancient and deep-rooted of human aspirations. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Alternatively, one could say that since we are part of nature, everything we do and create is in a sense natural too. The completion of the human genome project – a “rough draft” of the entire human genome was published in the year 2000 – was a scientific milestone by anyone’s standards. While this scenario may not entail the extinction of literally all intelligent life, it nevertheless constitutes an existential risk because the future that would result would be one in which a great part of humanity’s potential had been permanently destroyed and in which at most a tiny fraction of all humans would get to enjoy the benefits of posthumanity. È necessario abilitare JavaScript per vederlo. Beyond this, one can argue that parents have a moral responsibility to make use of these methods, assuming they are safe and effective. In addition to condemning the coercion involved in such policies, transhumanists strongly reject the racialist and classist assumptions on which they were based, along with the notion that eugenic improvements could be accomplished in a practically meaningful timeframe through selective human breeding. Heavy head-mounted display helmets and lag times between tracking device and graphics update can also cause discomfort. However, the distinction between weak and strong super­intelligence may not be clear-cut. Cleverly designed chemical building blocks might be made to self-assemble in solution phase into machine parts. What currents are there within transhumanism? Meanwhile, investment in the development of nanotechnology, already billions of dollars annually worldwide, is growing every year, and at least the less visionary aspects of nanotechnology have already become mainstream. Socrates and the sophists extended the application of critical thinking from metaphysics and cosmology to include the study of ethics and questions about human society and human psychology. Superintelligent systems could advise us on policy and make the progress curve for nanotechnology steeper, thus shortening the period of vulnerability between the development of dangerous nanoreplicators and the deployment of effective defenses. The more powerful transhuman technologies, such as machine-phase nanotechnology and super­intelligence, can be reached through several independent paths. Humanity+ developed after to rebrand transhumanism informing Humanity+ as a cooperative organization, seeking to pull together the leaders of transhumanism: from the early 1990s: Max More, Natasha Vita-More, Anders Sandberg; the late 1990s: Nick Bostrom, David Pearce, James Hughes; the 2000s: James Clement, Ben Goertzel, Giulio Prisco and many others. At least since the late 19th century, science and technology, as measured by a wide range of indicators, have doubled about every 15 years (Price 1986). Philosophical, legal, and ethical challenges abound. Super­intelligence requires two things: hardware and software. One possibility is that progress in computational neuroscience will teach us about the computational architecture of the human brain and what learning rules it employs. As a matter of physical necessity, things cannot stay as they are today indefinitely, or even for very long. We then have to try to estimate the likelihood of each of these consequences. Many experts in molecular nanotechnology believe that in its mature stage nanotechnology will enable the revival of cryonics patients. The messenger RNA is in turned determined by our DNA, which can be viewed (somewhat simplistically) as an instruction tape for protein synthesis. Ici vous allez trouvez des informations du "NET" pour vous faire votre propre opinion! One could say that nature has, in humanity, become conscious and self-reflective.

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